Study: Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil & Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter

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Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function.

Objective:
In this study we evaluated the potential efficacy of OO and FO in mitigating endothelial dysfunction and disruption of hemostasis caused by exposure to particulate matter (PM).

Methods and Results:
Forty-two participants (58±1 year old) received either 3 gram/day of OO, FO, or no supplements (naïve) for 4 weeks prior to undergoing 2-hr exposures to filtered-air and concentrated ambient particulate matter (CAP) (mean 253±16 µg/m3). Endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery (FMD) pre-, immediately post- and 20 hours post-exposure.

Levels of endothelin-1 and markers of fibrinolysis and inflammation were also measured. FMD was significantly lower after CAP exposure in the naïve (–19.4%; 95% CI: –36.4, –2.3 per 100 µg/m3 CAP relative to baseline; p = 0.03) and FO groups (–13.7%; 95% CI: –24.5, –2.9; p = 0.01), but not in the OO group (–7.6%; 95% CI: –21.5, 6.3; p = 0.27).

Tissue plasminogen activator levels were significant increased immediately after (11.6%; 95% CI: 0.8, 22.2; p = 0.04) and 20 hours after CAP exposure in the OO group. Endothelin-1 levels were significantly increased 20 hours after CAP exposure in the naïve group only (17.1%; 95% CI: 2.2, 32.0; p = 0.03).

Conclusions:
Short-term exposure to CAP induced vascular endothelial dysfunction. OO supplementation attenuated CAP-induced reduction of FMD and changes in blood markers associated with vasoconstriction and fibrinolysis, suggesting that OO supplementation may be an efficacious intervention to protect against vascular effects of exposure to PM.

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