Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value
– Olive oil cake, crude, with stones
– Olive oil cake, crude, without stones
– Olive oil cake, exhausted, with stones
– Olive oil cake, exhausted, without stones
– Olive oil pulp, crude
– Olive oil pulp, exhausted
– Olive pits, exhausted
– Olive kernels, exhausted
– Olive skins
– Olive oil vegetation water
Olive cake is not very palatable to ruminants. It may thus be recommended to make blends with other stuffs: adding molasses to olive oil cake can improve palatability. Due to its high lignin content, low crude protein content and poor digestibility, olive oil cake may be compared to roughage and is well accepted by ruminants (cattle, sheep, goats and camels). Olive oil cake can be fed either fresh, ensiled, dried, included in pellets or multi-nutrient blocks. (Molina Alcaide et al., 2008). It can be included at very high level in ewes or goats diets (70%) in scarce periods and sustain maintenance requirements. In fattening lambs, 40% inclusion is recommended (Nefzaoui, 1991).
Olive oil cake has positive effect on milk yield and milk fat content in cows and ewes (Sansoucy et al., 1985 ; Molina Alcaide et al., 2008). It is also improving milk protein in ewes (Molina Alcaide et al., 2008). Introducing olive oil cake with high oleic acid content in lactating animal diets enhances milk fatty acids quality as it improves mono-unsaturated fatty acids and decreases saturated fatty acids (Molina Alcaide et al., 2008).
Crude olive oil cake and crude olive oil cake without stones have high nutritive values that depend on fat content. If fat content is adequately balanced in the diet, crude olive cake has great potential in lactating cows or ewes since it increases milk yield (Molina Alcaide et al., 2008). However, fat rancidity is prone to occur and may become a problem. Preservation methods are thus necessary.
Crude olive cake may be ensiled with agro-industrial by-products and/or animal wastes as it allows preservation without affecting palatability and nutritional value, which may be compared to that of barley straw or good quality hay (Hadjipanayiotou, 2000). Crude olive cake silage had no effect on milk yield but increased milk fat content in ewes and goats (Hadjipanayiotou, 1999). Silage made with olive cake and 8% sugarcane molasses, 0.4% formic acid and 0.5% urea gave promising nutritive values (Rowghani et al., 2007).
Exhausted olive cake mixed with olive molasses replaced sunflower meal and barley grain in late pregnancy ewes and resulted in slightly higher performances in ewes and improved carcass yields of their lambs (Aguilera et al., 1992). Feeding growing cattle on exhausted olive oil cake does not give such promising results as it may decrease live weight gain in heifers and calves (Sansoucy et al., 1985).
Exhausted olive cake treated with either 4 % NaOH or 4 % NaOH + urea allowed increased weight gains and improved the feed conversion ratio. However, those treatments did not prove to be economically interesting (Sansoucy et al., 1985).Olive oil cake and by-products that can be used to feed animals,