Olive oil cake and by-products that can be used to feed animals

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The following table presents the different types of polyphenols and tannins in olive oil cake (Molina Alcaide et al., 2008)

Type of polyphenols and tannins (g/kg DM) Olive oil cake
Total extractable polyphenols 13.9
Total extractable tannins 9.78
Total extractable condensed tannins 0.81
Total condensed tannins 12.4
Free condensed tannins 1.64
Fibre bound condensed tannins 4
Protein bound condensed tannins 5.87

Nutritional attributes
Nutrient composition varies greatly between different olive by-products. This may be due to olive variety or environmental conditions: for instance, during dry years, stones may represent up to 70% of the fruit (Gómez Cabrera et al., 1984). Mineral content depends on harvesting methods: 7-8% when the fruits are picked directly on the tree (Gomes et al., 1981), 11% when they are collected with a net, and 16-24% when the olives are dropped on the floor before harvesting. However, these values are not usually found in olive oil manufacture since olives are washed before crushing.

Crude protein, crude fibre and crude fat also depend on extraction method (2 phase or 3 phases) as well as on de-stoning method (Molina Alcaide et al., 2008). Crude fibre is mainly constituted by lignin, which limits the feed value of olive cake (Amici et al., 1991). Crude protein content is rather low and it is worth noticing that most crude protein is linked to ADF. Moreover, solvent extraction increases N-ADF since olive oilcake is submitted to various heat treatments that cause Maillard reaction (carbohydrate-protein binding). However, N-ADF content is lower in crude olive cake than in defatted one (Álvarez-Rodríguez et al., 2009). Polyphenol and tannin content are also noticeable.

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