- A study on a standardized olive fruit extract shows promise for consumers at risk of arterial stiffness, as measured by a reduction in triglycerides. The extract showed less effect when measured with a vascular index. In a recent study published in the journal Drugs R&D,...
A study on a standardized olive fruit extract shows promise for consumers at risk of arterial stiffness, as measured by a reduction in triglycerides. The extract showed less effect when measured with a vascular index.
In a recent study published in the journal Drugs R&D, a standardized olive fruit extract (Proliva, supplied by Euromed) improved scores on an arterial measurement index as well as in measurements of mean triglyceride for the higher dosage group.The authors noted that arterial stiffness is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. The researchers chose to measure this with something called the Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index, a measurement tool that has been gaining traction among cardiovascular researchers. The index, which was first proposed in 2008, derives a stiffness parameter by plotting the natural logarithm of systolic-diastolic pressure ratio against the arterial wall extensibility.According to a 2013 review paper , the index has the advantage of being theoretically independent of blood pressure, as higher pressure naturally would put more stress on the arterial wall and cause it to appear to be more stiff. “CAVI has been widely applied clinically to assess arterial stiffness in subjects with known cardiovascular diseases including those with diagnosed atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and stroke as well as those at risk, including those with hypertension, diabetes, the elderly, and the obese,” the authors of the 2013 paper wrote.
Modest benefit showing need for more research
In the most recent olive extract study, the Euromed researchers divided 36 subjects in the double-blind, placebo-controlled study into three groups, one receiving 250 mg of the extract daily, which delivered 50 mg of the active ingredient, hydroxytyrosol, a 500 mg dose (100 mg of hydroxytyrosol) or a placebo. The subjects, who were all between the ages of 45 and 65, were followed for 11 days.Measurements at the end of the study showed no statistical differences between the groups in the CAVI measurement, with all three improving slightly. The authors said that a larger-scale, longer term study could better define the placebo effect, but did note that the high dose extract group did show the biggest improvement in the measure of blood triglyceride levels, and had the largest CAVI improvement, which they said showed a trend toward “improved arterial elasticity”. More research could better define this benefit, they said. The researchers also included a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) questionnaire portion of the study, looking at various parameters of ‘energy,’ including tiredness, fatigue and appetite, by which it was determined that the extract was well tolerated.VN:F [1.9.22_1171]VN:F [1.9.22_1171]
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- Graph 1 tracks the weekly movements in the prices paid to producers for extra virgin oil in the three top EU producing countries and in Tunisia, while graph 3 shows the weekly changes in the producer prices for refined olive oil in the three main EU producers. The monthly price...
Graph 1 tracks the weekly movements in the prices paid to producers for extra virgin oil in the three top EU producing countries and in Tunisia, while graph 3 shows the weekly changes in the producer prices for refined olive oil in the three main EU producers.
The monthly price movements for the same two grades of oil are given in Graphs 2 & 4.
Extra virgin olive oil – Producer prices in Spain over the last few weeks increased steadily to reach €3.64/kg at the end of January 2017, which was an 10% increase compared to the same period the previous year. If we compare this price with the maximum price in the third week of August 2015 (€4.23/kg), it presents a 14% decrease (Graph 1).
Italy – Producer prices in Italy began rising in mid-August, speeding up in the first week of November, when they broke the €5 barrier, and coming in at €5.90/kg at the end of January 2017, for a 70% year-on-year increase. Graph 2 shows the trend in monthly prices for the extra virgin olive oil category in recent campaigns.
Greece – The prices in Greece from mid-August to the end of October remained stable but, as in other markets, they then increased at the end of January 2017 to reach €3.46/kg at the end of January 2017, which is a 17% increase compared to the same period the previous year.
Tunisia – Prices in Tunisia, following some weeks of relative stability, increase as of the third week of January, coming in at €3.88/kg at the end of January 2017 for a 18% year-on-year increase.
Refined olive oil: The producer prices for refined olive oil in Spain and Italy generally follow the same trend as the prices for extra virgin olive oil. In period the previous year and in Italy they on-year increase. No price data are available for this product in Greece.
At the end of January 2017, the price (€3.64/kg) was of €0.10/kg. In Italy the price difference between the two categories was greater at 3.
Spain, they came in at €3.54/kg, which was a 1 hey came in at €3.62/kg, at the end of January 2017 difference in Spain between refined olive oil, 11% increase on the same
2017, which was a 15% year refined (€3.54/kg) and extra virgin oil€2.28/kg (Graph3)VN:F [1.9.22_1171]VN:F [1.9.22_1171]
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- Research on table olives has shown that the consumption of this product can strengthen consumers’ natural immune systems. Table olives could be the main fermented probiotic vegetable product sold in the future. The latest data provided by researchers from the PROBIOLIVES Project...
Research on table olives has shown that the consumption of this product can strengthen consumers’ natural immune systems. Table olives could be the main fermented probiotic vegetable product sold in the future. The latest data provided by researchers from the PROBIOLIVES Project shows that some of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) generated in the fermentation of table olives have better results than other forms of bacteria that have been recognised as probiotic microorganisms and that are currently used in many milk products.
From a nutritional perspective, a normal daily intake of olives, which would be of 25–28 g (approximately seven olives), has an energetic value of 37 Kcal. Those calories mainly come from the olives’ fat contents, 82% of which is monosaturated – the same healthy fat as is found in olive oil. The regular consumption of olives also helps provide the daily recommended fibre intake; they are a source of oleic acid and they provide carbohydrates and protein.
Olives also contain minerals such as sodium, iron, calcium and magnesium, which are particularly important for those who practice sports given their action on muscle contractions and nerve impulses. One of the main nutrients in table olives are
polyphenols and provitamins A and E, the antioxidant properties of which act against oxidative processes that occur in the practice of sport, affecting both performance during exercise and during the recovery period.
As part of the activities provided for in the International Agreement and its standardisation mandate, the IOC is responsible for drawing up and revising trade standards. In the case of the trade standard applying to table olives, it lays down definitions and provisions relating to the different commercial categories of table olives. Its work also includes revising the Codex Alimentarius standard for this product, with a view to regulating the quality criteria in international trade.
TRENDS IN GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF TABLE OLIVES
The global consumption of table olives in recent years has multiplied by 2.7, increasing by 182.0% over the period 1990/91–2016/17. Graph 1 illustrates this trend, where the largest increase in consumption is seen in the main IOC member producers. Production in some of these countries has increased markedly, as a result of consumption. Egypt is
one such case, and which has gone from consuming 11 000 t in 1990/91 to 400 000 t in 2016/17. In this same period Algeria went from consuming 14 000 to 244 000 t and Turkey from 110 000 to 350 000 t.
The other countries have also seen increases, although these have been proportionally lower. Graph 2 shows the annual consumption of table olives per inhabitant in IOC member countries in 2015, with Albania in the lead with a consumption of 10.7kg/ inhabitant/ year.
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