Monthly Archives: April 2016

  • The prevalence of fraudulently labeled olive oil imported into the United States

    Last Tuesday, the U.S. House Agricultural Committee submitted a report detailing concerns over “the prevalence of adulterated and fraudulently labeled olive oil imported into the United States and sold to American consumers.” In addition to false marketing claims, mislabeled olive oils may pose “a serious health risk to consumers who are allergic to seed oil,” which is often used as a filler in cheaper olive oils, the report claims.

    Imported oils account for more than 95 percent of olive oil consumed in the United States, which imports about $1.1 billion worth of olive oil annually. In January, a 60 Minutes report found that up to 80 percent of the extra virgin olive oil sold in American supermarkets may be diluted with substandard olive oils—or may even be a different cheap oil altogether that’s been scented and colored.

    Following in the steps of Italian lawmakers who recently stepped up efforts to combat olive oil fraud within the country, the U.S. is giving the FDA nine months to “ take a sampling of imported olive oil to determine if it is adulterated or misbranded,” report on its findings to Congress, and make recommendations on how to address the problem.

    The committee suggests that consumers may benefit from some type of labeling system to note relative oil purity and demarcate certain additives.

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    Last Tuesday, the U.S. House Agricultural Committee submitted a report detailing concerns over “the prevalence of adulterated and fraudulently labeled olive oil imported into the United States and sold to American consumers.” In addition to false marketing claims, mislabeled... 
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  • Study: Olive-sourced hydroxytyrosol effective in biscuits

    bioavailable, extensively metabolised and rapidly eliminated, contributing to a decrease of plasma oxidised-LDL. Therefore, biscuits can be considered an efficient vehicle to deliver HT,” the Spanish researchers wrote in the journal Food Chemistry.

    Olive oil phenol HT has been proven in numerous studies to positively influence cardiovascular health by protecting LDL particles from oxidative damage.

    In 2011 this evidence was given the stamp of approval by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) when olive oil polyphenols was awarded a rare health claim. This captured the interest of the food and ingredients industry and since then the market for HT has been hot.

    Narrow scope

    However, the scope of the EFSA claim is limited to the application of HT and its derivatives in the olive oil matrix and relates to ‘chronic consumption’.

    “Any claim with hydroxytyrosol in a different food matrix requires a study to assess the capacity of hydroxytyrosol to protect LDL against oxidation,” lead researcher Raquel Mateos told NutraIngredients.

    She explained: “Bioavailability of food components may vary positively or negatively depending on the food it is contained in. Previous studies have reported that the bioavailability of phenols in olive oil declines in food matrices other than olive oil. There are few studies on the bioavailability of hydroxytyrosol in foods other than oil and none in cereal based matrices, to our knowledge.”

    This research gap coupled with the restriction on how the EFSA claim could be applied prompted Spanish biscuit and pastries manufacturer Adam Foods SL to approach the Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN-CSIC) to evaluate the bioavailability of HT in biscuits.

    From the researchers’ point of view, the driver for the study was to help encourage uptake of the phenol by facilitating its inclusion in an increased range of products.

    “Biscuits are widely consumed by all population groups, hence being an interesting food option for enrichment with bioactive ingredients to deliver healthy compounds to consumers. Therefore this study was aimed at assessing the absorption and metabolism of HT, contained in biscuits, in volunteers,” the researchers said.

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    bioavailable, extensively metabolised and rapidly eliminated, contributing to a decrease of plasma oxidised-LDL. Therefore, biscuits can be considered an efficient vehicle to deliver HT,” the Spanish researchers wrote in the journal Food Chemistry. Olive oil phenol HT has been... 
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  • Higher olive oil production in Spain could help stabilize prices

    Olive oil production in Spain is now predicted to be 16 per cent higher than what was originally forecast for the 2015-2016 period, something that looks set to help stabilize prices.

    Experts in the industry were expecting a smaller harvest, and around 1,200,000 tonnes in total production, reports Efeagro.com. However, Spanish olive oil giant, Deoleo is now reporting that production is set to amount to 1,400,000 tonnes.

    Available information for the 2015-2016 period so far (until February 2016) indicates that already 1,357,000 tonnes have been registered.

    Average production for the last ten years has been 1,200,000 tonnes, hence the results are thought to be a considerable improvement. This is expected to have a positive impact on the price of olive oil, since lower supplies last year had lead to unstable prices.

    According to Deoleo, the predicted available product, including the imports and remaining stock from last year, amounts to around 1,700,000 tonnes – plenty to cover the domestic market and increase exports.

    European Supermarket Magazine

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    Olive oil production in Spain is now predicted to be 16 per cent higher than what was originally forecast for the 2015-2016 period, something that looks set to help stabilize prices. Experts in the industry were expecting a smaller harvest, and around 1,200,000 tonnes in total... 
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  • Portugal Sees 75% Growth in Olive Oil Production

    Portugal produced 106,000 tonnes of olive oil in 2015, which is 75 percent more than in 2014 and the highest figure since 1961.

    Last year’s production was the third highest in the last 100 years and the Casa do Azeite, an association representing producers and olive oil packers, has revised upwards its production forecasts for the next four years.

    The general secretary of Casa do Azeite, Mariana Matos, told Publico that the initial forecast was to reach 100,000 tonnes in 2020, but the good results achieved in the last season have led the group to anticipate production of between 120,000 and 130,000 tonnes in the next four years.

    Difficulties in two of Portugal’s main markets, Brazil and Angola, which together account for 50 per cent of olive oil exports, impacted foreign sales last year. For the first time in recent years, exports dropped 4 per cent in volume. However, they grew 17 per cent in value to €436.5 million due to increased prices.

    Despite the growth in olive oil production, the country remains in fourth position among the leading European producers, behind Spain, Italy and Greece.

    European Supermarket Magazine

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    Portugal produced 106,000 tonnes of olive oil in 2015, which is 75 percent more than in 2014 and the highest figure since 1961. Last year’s production was the third highest in the last 100 years and the Casa do Azeite, an association representing producers and olive oil packers,... 
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  • EU grant of 606,000€ for the Oleum project to combat fraud in olive oil

    The Instituto de la Grasa, belonging to the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), has managed by a consortium -in which 20 institutions from 15 countries are present- a grant of 606,000 euros from the European Union (EU) for the Oleum project, which will generate innovative, more effective and harmonized analytical solutions to detect and combat the most common and emerging fraud in olive oil also being able to verify its quality.

    In a statement, the agency has stated that the amount has been granted through the Horizon 2020 call, in relation to the food crisis, fraud in the food chain and food control under fraudulent activities. Twenty consortiums presented to this call which finally chose Oleum project, whose total budget is 5 million euros.

    In this consortium participate numerous chemical experts that make up the expert groups of the regulatory olive oil institutions, such as the European Union (EU) and the International Olive Council (IOC). Also, a total of eight of these experts participate in the consortium.

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    The Instituto de la Grasa, belonging to the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), has managed by a consortium -in which 20 institutions from 15 countries are present- a grant of 606,000 euros from the European Union (EU) for the Oleum project, which will generate innovative,... 
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  • International Olive Oil Contest Masters of San Remo Awards

    The competition, organized for the first time in 2016 by Masters of Olive Oil, seeks to promote the knowledge and use olive oil extra virgin correct, healthy and positive way, spreading its culture and informing consumers about their benefits Health.

    It also aims to contribute to the dissemination of extra virgin olive oil and promote its use in international markets; transmitting the nutritional benefits of this food as a fundamental component of the Mediterranean Diet; promoting the winning companies in particular (and all producers who have managed to produce excellent EVOOs in general) among consumers, distributors, importers and retail chains in international markets; and encourage consumption.

    EVOOs from Spain, Italy, France, Greece and Israel have been awarded in these categories: Low Fruity Olive Oils, Medium Fruity Olive Oils, High Fruity Olive Oils, Monovarietal Olive Oil, Blend Olive Oil, Organic Olive Oil and Ligurian Olive Oils.
    stemma
    Masters of Olive Oil INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION
    29th of March – 1st of April

    >> AWARDS MASTERS OF OLIVE OIL INTERNATIONAL CONTEST SANREMO 2016

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    The competition, organized for the first time in 2016 by Masters of Olive Oil, seeks to promote the knowledge and use olive oil extra virgin correct, healthy and positive way, spreading its culture and informing consumers about their benefits Health. It also aims to contribute... 
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  • World's TOP100 Extra Virgin Olive Oils by EVOOLEUM

    The organizers of the EVOOLEUM Awards International Competition, has announced the EVOO TOP100 which is to say the 100 extra virgin olive oils that have obtained the highest score among the 300 samples submitted to a contest that was born with the aim to recognize the quality of the best EVOOs worldwide, and that once developed the selection process, can claim that the goal has been amply fulfilled, relying on the most rigorous methodology and a spectacular international jury which has formed its Tasting Panel.

    After the relevant reception, organoleptic assessment and verification of samples submitted, amongst the 100 EVOOs with highest scores in the competition highlights the overwhelming Spanish dominion, with 74 juices mainly from Andalusia -authentic heart of world production with Jaén and Córdoba to the head-, but also from Extremadura, Castilla-La Mancha, Catalonia, Valencia, Aragón, Mallorca and Navarre; as well as Portugal (12) and Italy (11) completing the podium.

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    The organizers of the EVOOLEUM Awards International Competition, has announced the EVOO TOP100 which is to say the 100 extra virgin olive oils that have obtained the highest score among the 300 samples submitted to a contest that was born with the aim to recognize the quality... 
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  • Eliris Extraordinary Organic EVOO is a Gold Award Winner at NYIIOOC

    Eliris extraordinary organic olive oil is crafted by Iris & Sam at Efthimiadi Estate in northern Greece. A rare, single-estate signature field-blend of many Greek varieties, produces a truly stunning medium style of olive oil with a complex character.
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    Eliris, the extraordinary taste of Greece
    In an area of astonishing natural beauty, nestling in the foothills of the Menikio mountains in Northern Greece, there thrives an olive grove of noble provenance. Home to a rare collection of legendary Greek olive varieties, the grove has been painstakingly rejuvenated by a daughter and her English fiancee, in honour of her father’s dream.

    In this idyllic, tranquil setting, olives are tended with reverence using time-honoured, organic methods. Fresh olives are harvested by hand and quickly cold extracted to produce Eliris, a high-phenol, signature field-blend of unrivalled quality, aroma and flavour.

    Eliris is one of the finest, most distinctive organic olive oils in the world. Fresh estate olive oil is like nothing else, a rare joy to be savoured. If you are holding a bottle of Eliris, you are one of the very few to discover and experience a truly rare delicacy – beyond delicious.

    Iris & Sam warmly welcome you to learn more about what makes Eliris extraordinary and would be delighted to hear how Eliris has brought joy to and influenced your culinary adventure.
    Efthimiadi Estate is managed 'with meraki' by Iris & Sam
    Award page

    Producer’s website

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    Eliris extraordinary organic olive oil is crafted by Iris & Sam at Efthimiadi Estate in northern Greece. A rare, single-estate signature field-blend of many Greek varieties, produces a truly stunning medium style of olive oil with a complex character.Eliris, the extraordinary... 
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  • The winners of the New York International Olive Oil Competition 2016

    The winners of the New York International Olive Oil Competition were announced at a New York press conference broadcast live on April 14, 2016.

    Over 200 media and food industry professionals attended the sold-out press event, which included a tasting of many of the winning oils.

    More than 820 brands from 26 countries participated in the competition, making it by far the largest of its kind. Italy took home the most awards with 109, followed by Spain with 78. United States won 50 awards. 17 olive oil brands were awarded the Best in Class distinction.2016 New York International Olive Oil Competition

    Curtis Cord, president of the New York International Olive Oil Competition (NYIOOC), announced the best olive oils in the world for 2016 at a press conference packed with over 200 olive oil producers retailers, distributors, chefs and journalists from around the world in New York City this evening.

    The crowded audience was abuzz with anticipation, nerves and excitement. One producer said she was nearly in tears. “My boss told me not to come home unless I win,” she said. Viewers from around the world, who watched the live-streamed broadcast online, joined the New York crowd, waiting for the results.

    Despite the many challenges, 314 producers took home awards, an overall success rate of 38 percent. Italy won 109 awards, overtaking last year’s top winner, Spain, who racked up 78 wins, a strong second. The United States came in third place with 50.

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    The winners of the New York International Olive Oil Competition were announced at a New York press conference broadcast live on April 14, 2016. Over 200 media and food industry professionals attended the sold-out press event, which included a tasting of many of the winning oils. More... 
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  • Deoleo told lenders that profit from olive oil sales will rebound this year

    Deoleo SA, the maker of Bertolli olive oil, told lenders that earnings will rebound this year, delaying the need for new capital, according to two people familiar with the matter.

    Earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization is forecast to rise to about 60 million euros ($68 million) this year from 35.6 million euros in 2015, parent CVC Capital Partners said at a meeting on Thursday, according to the people, who asked not to be identified because the event was private. CVC owns slightly more than 50 percent of Madrid-listed Deoleo.

    The company expects lower costs this year because better harvests have slashed prices for olive oil in Spain and Italy. Prices surged to the highest in at least five years in 2015, according to data compiled by Bloomberg, as bad weather and blight damaged crops.

    A spokesman for CVC declined to the comment on the earnings forecast. A spokeswoman for Deoleo, employed by Report Comunicacion, also declined to comment.

    Deoleo raised 600 million euros of loans to fund its acquisition by CVC in 2014. The loans are quoted at about 75 cents on the euro following the meeting, up from about 68 cents on the euro last week, the people said.

    The company’s shares have fallen more than 45 percent in the past year, cutting its market value to about 260 million euros.

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    Deoleo SA, the maker of Bertolli olive oil, told lenders that earnings will rebound this year, delaying the need for new capital, according to two people familiar with the matter. Earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization is forecast to rise to about 60 million... 
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  • Italy’s Senate approves new Expiry Date Rules for Olive Oil

    Italy’s Senate has approved changes to existing legislation from 2013 that required a minimum expiry date of no more than 18 months after its production for virgin olive oil.

    The European Commission has put pressure on Italy to eliminate this expiry date, and leave it to producers to take responsibility to define expiration dates themselves.

    The Italian farmers’ association Coldiretti has warned that the decision to remove the maximum legal shelf life “will serve to promote the disposal of old stocks to the detriment of consumers”.

    It says that numerous studies have shown that, over time, olive oil loses its polyphenols, antioxidants, and vitamins, which form the basis of the properties that make it a valuable health food.

    The implementation of the EU guidelines, claims Coldiretti, “amounts to deleting the expiry date, since the bottlers will only set it based on their own commercial interests”, adding that the “risk is that many will take advantage to dispose of the old oil”.

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    Italy’s Senate has approved changes to existing legislation from 2013 that required a minimum expiry date of no more than 18 months after its production for virgin olive oil. The European Commission has put pressure on Italy to eliminate this expiry date, and leave it to producers... 
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  • Influence of Phenol-Enriched Olive Oils on Human Intestinal Immune Function

    Olive oil (OO) phenolic compounds (PC) are able to influence gut microbial populations and metabolic output.

    Our aim was to investigate whether these compounds and changes affect the mucosal immune system.

    In a randomized, controlled, double blind cross-over human trial, for three weeks, preceded by two-week washout periods, 10 hypercholesterolemic participants ingested 25 mL/day of three raw virgin OO differing in their PC concentration and origin: (1) an OO containing 80 mg PC/kg (VOO); (2) a PC-enriched OO containing 500 mg PC/kg from OO (FVOO); and (3) a PC-enriched OO containing a mixture of 500 mg PC/kg from OO and thyme (1:1, FVOOT).

    Intestinal immunity (fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgA-coated bacteria) and inflammation markers (C-reactive protein (CRP) and fecal interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and calprotectin) was analyzed.

    The ingestion of high amounts of OO PC, as contained in FVOO, tended to increase the proportions of IgA-coated bacteria and increased plasma levels of CRP.

    However, lower amounts of OO PC (VOO) and the combination of two PC sources (FVOOT) did not show significant effects on the variables investigated.

    Results indicate a potential stimulation of the immune system with very high doses of OO PC, which should be further investigated.

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    Olive oil (OO) phenolic compounds (PC) are able to influence gut microbial populations and metabolic output. Our aim was to investigate whether these compounds and changes affect the mucosal immune system. In a randomized, controlled, double blind cross-over human trial, for... 
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  • UC Davis Olive Center shares expertise with Spain

    The UC Davis Olive Center recently co-chaired an international research competition, judging the event alongside experts from the University of Jaén, located in southwestern Spain at the center of the world’s largest olive-producing region.

    The Spanish olive-oil company Castillo de Canena sponsors the competition, which is held every two years and culminates with the awarding of the Luis Vañó Prize, named after the company’s founder.

    The 6,000-Euro prize (about $6,830) went to a research team at Spain’s University of Córdoba,for a study on using a naturally occurring fungus as an organic control for the olive fruit fly, a pest that can cause up to a 40-percent loss in olive production. The researchers found that use of the fungus could decrease the fly’s population density by 50 percent.

    The University of Jaén collaborates with Castillo de Canena on the competition, which this year extended its international reach by bringing in UC Davis to help with judging.

    The UC Davis judges: Dan Flynn, executive director of the Olive Center; Selina Wang, the center’s research director and an adjunct professor in the Department of Food Science and Technology; Louise Ferguson, a Cooperative Extension specialist in the Department of Plant Sciences; and Elda Vitanovic, an entomologist and Fulbright Scholar from the University of Split and the Institute for Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, both in Split, Croatia.

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    The UC Davis Olive Center recently co-chaired an international research competition, judging the event alongside experts from the University of Jaén, located in southwestern Spain at the center of the world’s largest olive-producing region. The Spanish olive-oil company Castillo... 
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  • Olive Press's 'Mission' oil earned Best of California & Best of Class awards at the state fair

    According to the California State Fair press release, California extra virgin olive oil is one of the state’s fastest-growing agricultural industries. Consumers appear to be starting to turn to local olive oils after huge publicity about olive oil adulterations and cheating in Europe, where producers allegedly added other oils and coloring to feign extra virgins.

    We do know that olives are Sonoma Valley’s second-largest agricultural crop after grapes.

    And Sonoma Valley’s own Olive Press just cleaned up on medals at the California State Fair, San Joaquin Valley Olive Oil Competition and at the Los Angeles International Olive Oil Competition.

    The California State Fair’s just-released Olive Oil Competition awards include a multitude of medals for Fred and Nancy Kline’s Olive Press, including top Best of California Extra Virgin Olive Oil for its Mission line in the Single Variety Delicate category, and Best of Class for extra virgin olive oil, again for Mission. They also received several gold and silver medals for their Manzanillo, Sevillano, Arbosana, Arbequina, Picual, and Italian blend extra virgin olive oils. The Olive Press’s Lemonato, Clementine and lime flavored olive oils gained silver and bronze medals.

    McEvoy Ranch won gold for its certified organic estate Robust Blend EVOO.

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    According to the California State Fair press release, California extra virgin olive oil is one of the state’s fastest-growing agricultural industries. Consumers appear to be starting to turn to local olive oils after huge publicity about olive oil adulterations and cheating... 
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  • Talking with Eataly NYC olive oil expert

    If you live in Tuscany, chances are you’ve been called on by friends to help with their olive harvest or you have olive trees yourself. If you’re here for a visit, you are most likely enjoying flavorful Tuscan extra-virgin olive oil where it is grown and pressed. But what about our friends back in the United States? How can they enjoy the true flavors and be sure that they are getting authentic Tuscan oil? We talked to Nicholas Coleman, olive oil buyer for Eataly, about his profession and his passion.

    Meet Nicholas Coleman, olive oil buyer for Eataly

    Oonagh Stransky: Tell me about your relationship with Arezzo and the surrounding countryside.

    Nicholas Coleman: In 2007 I embarked on a journey from the Arctic Circle in Finland down to the Sahara Desert in Morocco. It was my quest for truth, understanding and adventure, of the sort many people undertake in their early twenties. I happened to be in Italy during the olive harvest and was put in contact with Nadia Gasperini Rossi, from the ancient city of Arezzo. She took me under her wing, showed me how to hand-harvest, hand-clean and coddle olives from tree to mill in mint condition.

    OS: What was the most difficult aspect of your training with the Italian Olive Oil Tasters Organization?

    NC: I had spent years tasting hundreds of oils from around the world, so I had a pretty clear sense of identifying regional olive cultivars based on their smell, flavor and texture. Two weeks before the course, I abstained from alcohol, coffee, dairy and meat. I basically maintained a vegan diet. This process effectively neutralized my palate so I could sense the subtle nuances in oil.

    OS: What is your role at Eataly in NYC?

    NC: I spend most of my time at Eataly educating the public and staff about the 100+ extra virgin olive oils we carry. It’s the finest selection of single-estate mono-cultivar Italian oils in America. I also teach the master class at Lidia Bastianich’s culinary school, highlighting the unique organoleptic properties of oils from throughout Italy.

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    If you live in Tuscany, chances are you’ve been called on by friends to help with their olive harvest or you have olive trees yourself. If you’re here for a visit, you are most likely enjoying flavorful Tuscan extra-virgin olive oil where it is grown and pressed. But what... 
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  • Olives Irrigation Project IRRIGAOLIVO (CFC-IOC/06)

    The Executive Secretariat has developed a project for rational irrigation management in olive cultivation as part of the IOC’s R & D and environmental programme. Known as IRRIGAOLIVO (CFC-IOC/06), the project has been set up in Morocco and Syria with financing from the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC).

    Although drought-tolerant, the olive tree gives higher yields when it is irrigated. Water is an important and precious resource.

    The object of this project is therefore to show olive growers the economic benefits of rational irrigation use. For instance, deficit irrigation where only 70 pc of plant water requirements are covered can give bigger crops and better oil quality while saving a considerable amount of water.

    By conducting trials and promoting irrigation and orchard management practices, the project seeks to help small farmers to produce more and better and to increase their earnings and so improve their standard of living.

    Source: International Olive Council

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    The Executive Secretariat has developed a project for rational irrigation management in olive cultivation as part of the IOC’s R & D and environmental programme. Known as IRRIGAOLIVO (CFC-IOC/06), the project has been set up in Morocco and Syria with financing from the... 
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  • Trends in world table olives consumption

    During the 25 years between the 1990/91 and 2015/16 seasons, world consumption of table olives increased 2.8 times (+173 pc). Chart 1 shows how it has climbed constantly over the years, hitting its highest level in 2015/16.

    The biggest rises have been in the member countries of the IOC – also the top producers –, often in tandem with increases in production. This is particularly the case of countries like Egypt, which consumed 11 000 t in 1990/91 and now consumes 360 000 t in 2015/16; Turkey, where consumption has shot up from 110 000 t to 327 500 t and Algeria where it has soared from 14 000 t to 231 500 t. Table olive consumption has increased in the other countries too, but to a smaller extent. In 2015/16, the world’s top ten consumers were Egypt, Turkey, Algeria, the United States, Spain, Syria, Italy, Brazil, Iran, France and Russia.

    Chart 2 looks at annual per capita consumption of table olives in the IOC member countries in 2013/14. Albania leads the league with a total consumption of 29 000 t for a population of barely 2 895 000, which gives a per capita consumption of 10 kg. Much further down the line come Algeria with 5 kg/capita/year, Turkey, Syria and Lebanon with between 4.7 and 4.4 kg/year, Egypt (3.8 kg), Jordan, Israel and Libya (between 2.6 and 2.2 kg), and Tunisia, Uruguay and Morocco (1.9–1 kg). Annual per capita consumption in the other countries was less than 1 kg (Argentina, Iran and Iraq, listed in descending order).
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    Looking at the countries in the European Union, we find that table olive consumption has risen by 70.6 pc, going up from 346 400 t in 1990/91 to 591 000 t in 2015/16. Spain is the top producer and consumer (Chart 3) and has an annual per capita consumption of 3.5 kg. Cyprus comes next (3.1 kg), followed by Malta (3 kg) and Italy (2 kg), and then Bulgaria, Luxembourg, Greece and Romania (1.6–1 kg). The inhabitants of France, Sweden, Belgium, Portugal, United Kingdom, Austria, Croatia, Denmark and Germany eat between 0.9 and 0.5 kg of olives per year while those in Lithuania, Finland, Slovenia, Ireland, Slovakia, Latvia, Poland, Estonia, Czech Republic, Hungary and the
    Netherlands consume less than 0.4 kg/year.
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    In the non-IOC member countries, annual consumption of table olives in 2014 (Chart 4) oscillated between 2.9 and 0.9 kg, with Palestine in the lead, and Chile, Saudi Arabia, Peru and Australia next in line (these five countries are also producers). At a distance follow Canada and Switzerland with 0.8 kg each, Brazil and Russia with between 0.6 and 0.5 kg, and Mexico and the United States with 0.1 kg.
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    Source: International Olive Council MARKET NEWSLETTER No 103 – March 2016

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    During the 25 years between the 1990/91 and 2015/16 seasons, world consumption of table olives increased 2.8 times (+173 pc). Chart 1 shows how it has climbed constantly over the years, hitting its highest level in 2015/16. The biggest rises have been in the member countries... 
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